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THE DARK AGES                          121

this work men who are both able and willing to learn, and desirous
at the same time of instructing others."* This proclamation was
followed by similar edicts. Two years later one was sent to the
monks, another to the priests. In the first, it was ordained that
every monastery or abbey should have its school, where boys
would be taught singing, arithmetic, and grammar. (Was this
school only for the inmates of the monasteries ? The fact that the
Council of Aachen in 817 forbade monasteries to open their
schools to outside pupils suggests that the attempt may have been
made at or before this time to broaden the monastery schools by
opening them to lay scholars.) In the second, regulations were
laid down to ensure a certain minimum of education for the
clergy, as in the Anglo-Saxon Church. But Charles did not
confine his efforts to mere proclamations. When in Rome he
enlisted special teachers for service in the schools; and he
appointed officials (missi dominid) to act as inspectors and see that
effect was given to his instructions.

In 796 Alcuin was appointed head of the abbey of St. Martin
of Tours, the wealthiest abbey in Frankland, and spent the
remaining years of his life in making it a great centre of monastic
learning. After Alcuin's retirement, Theodulph, Bishop of
Orleans, seems to have taken his place in the administration of
education, and an Irish scholar, Clement by name, to have suc-
ceeded him as master of the Palace School. Judging from the
proclamations issued after 796, the change led to a broadening
of Charles's educational policy. The efforts made by Charles
when Alcuin was his adviser were mainly concerned with the
education of monks and priests. Attention began to be directed
now to the education of the people. The instructions given by
Theodulph to his clergy in 797 about gratuitous popular education
have already been noted. It is the same view that finds expression
in a proclamation made by Charles in 802 to the effect that
" everyone should send his son to school to study grammar, and
that the child should remain at school with all diligence until he
had become well instructed in learning.''!

The circumstances of the times were unfavourable to any

effective realization of this liberal ideal of Charles, but for at least

a century or more it continued to inspire his own successors and

princes in other lands.   In 825 the Emperor Lothaire issued an

* West, Alcuin, p, 49